Re-engineering the Market - Section 1
For Bowles, international peace was only achievable through a revolution in American attitudes. As under secretary of state during the Kennedy administration, he often remarked to the president that the State Department failed to learn from its mistakes. The Bay of Pigs scandal epitomized Bowles’ fears that the United States too often relied on the military to accomplish its tasks. For Bowles, his objection to military use as a means to a diplomatic end stemmed from his belief that it lacked a moral justification. More importantly, he decried military campaigns as a distraction from the American pursuit of building long-lasting partnerships that better ensured the permanence of U.S. influence around the globe. Arguing to reform the U.S. State Department, Chester Bowles, much to the dissatisfaction of his colleagues, challenged precedents and diplomatic instruments. Due to his critiques, Bowles resigned as under secretary of state to become ambassador to India where he focused his energies on developing a policy that embodied his vision of a reimagined American diplomacy.